This template helps teams frame their work as a business problem to solve (rather than a solution to implement). By dissecting that business problem into its core assumptions, you can develop hypotheses to design experiments around and test.
Jeff Gothelf has worked for 20+ years as a designer, team leader, author and coach. His work today mainly focuses on building and training evidence-based, customer-centered executive & product teams. These teams often utilize lean and agile principles which are detailed in his books Lean UX and Sense & Respond.